Types of Employment Tribunal Claims in the UK

Types of Employment Tribunal Claims in the UK

Employees can file employment tribunal claims to seek resolution when workplace disputes arise in the UK. Employment tribunals are independent judicial bodies that deal with various employment law disputes. This article will provide an overview of the most common employment tribunal claims that employees can make in the UK.

Unfair Dismissal

One of the most frequent types of employment tribunal claims is unfair dismissal. Unfair dismissal occurs when employees believe they have been dismissed from their job without a fair reason or following proper procedures. Employees can claim unfair dismissal if terminated for discrimination, whistleblowing, or exercising their employment rights. The employment tribunal will assess the circumstances and determine if the dismissal was unfair.


Discrimination claims are another significant category of employment tribunal claims. Under UK law, it is illegal to discriminate against employees based on protected characteristics such as age, gender, race, disability, religion, or sexual orientation. Discrimination can manifest in various ways, including unequal treatment, harassment, or victimisation. Employees who believe they have experienced discrimination can file a claim with the employment tribunal to seek redress and compensation.

Harassment and Bullying

Harassment and bullying in the workplace can severely impact an employee’s well-being and job satisfaction. Employees subjected to offensive, intimidating, or hostile behaviour may file employment tribunal claims for harassment or bullying. Employers need to foster a safe and inclusive work environment and promptly address any instances of harassment.

Breach of Contract

Employment contracts establish the rights and obligations of both employers and employees. Suppose an employer fails to fulfil their contractual obligations, such as non-payment of wages, changes to working conditions without agreement, or denial of statutory rights. In that case, employees can file a claim for breach of contract. Employment tribunals can assess the breach and award compensation or enforce the terms of the contract.


Whistleblowing claims protect employees who disclose wrongdoing within their organisation. The law protects employees who report misconduct, illegal activities, or health and safety concerns. If an employee suffers adverse treatment or is dismissed due to whistleblowing, they can make an employment tribunal claim to challenge the retaliation and seek compensation.


Redundancy occurs when an employer needs to reduce their workforce due to business closure, reorganisation, or a diminished need for particular skills. While redundancy is not an unlawful act, employees have the right to challenge the fairness of the selection process or the redundancy process as a whole. Employment tribunals can assess whether the redundancy was carried out fairly and determine if the employee is entitled to compensation or other remedies.

Constructive Dismissal

Constructive dismissal occurs when an employee resigns from their job due to a fundamental breach of contract by the employer. The breach of contract may include issues such as a significant change in working conditions, harassment, or a failure to address health and safety concerns. Employees who can demonstrate that they had no choice but to resign due to the employer’s actions or omissions can file a claim for constructive dismissal.

Equal Pay

The principle of equal pay ensures that men and women receive equal pay for equal work or work of equal value. Employees who believe they are being paid less than colleagues of the opposite sex for the same or similar job can file an equal pay claim. Employment tribunals will assess the roles and responsibilities of the employees involved and determine if a pay discrepancy cannot be justified.


Employment tribunal claims are crucial in resolving workplace disputes in the UK. From unfair dismissal and discrimination to harassment, breach of contract, redundancy, constructive dismissal, and equal pay, employees can seek justice and compensation through the tribunal system. Employers must adhere to employment laws, promote equality, and maintain a healthy work environment to minimise the risk of tribunal claims. If you require legal assistance with an employment tribunal claim or any other legal matter, Lawyersorted.com is a valuable resource. Lawyersorted.com provides a comprehensive directory of law firms and solicitors across the UK. By connecting with experienced legal professionals, you can receive expert advice and guidance throughout the process, increasing your chances of a successful outcome. Visit Lawyersorted.com today to find the proper legal representation for your needs.

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